The most widely accepted hypothesis takes into account that with increasing temperature, the molecules begin to be broken into kerosene, generating gaseous and liquid organic compounds, known as contagion. To have an accumulation of oil it would be necessary that after the process of generation (generation kitchen) and expulsion there occurs the migration of oil and / or gas through the adjacent layers of porous rocks until it finds a rock and a sealing structure. It is accepted by the majority of geologists and geochemists. It is formed from organic substances originating from land surface (organic debris), but this is not the only theory about its formation. Another hypothesis, dating from the nineteenth century, argues that oil had an inorganic origin, from the carbon deposits that possibly have been formed with the formation of the Earth. In short, there are numerous theories about the origin of oil, but the most accepted is that it came about through the organic remains of animals and plants deposited on the bottom of lakes and seas, suffering chemical changes over millions of years. Flammable substance, and has physical state oily lower density than water. Its chemical composition is a combination of carbon and hydrogen molecules (hydrocarbons).
- Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) – consists of a fraction composed of propane and butane, stored in canisters and used as cooking gas.
- Gasoline –Gasoline is one of the most important products of petroleum, being a flammable liquid and volatile. It consists of a mixture of isomers of C5 to C9 hydrocarbons obtained by distilling many refineries. Nowadays, in order to cheapen and increase gasoline, octane elements are added along with other non-petroleum gasoline, for example, methanol and ethanol. A curiosity was built with the introduction of gasoline in aviation, starting with the 14 bios aircraft invented by Santos Dumont, in which he used a car engine.
- Kerosene – Kerosene is a fraction intermediate between petrol and diesel. This derivative is obtained by fractional distillation of petroleum in nature, with a boiling point ranging from 150 ° C to 300 ° C. Kerosene is no longer the main product of industrial use, but is widely used as a fuel for jet aircraft engines, and even in many applications as a solvent. It produces burning odor and is also smoke free.
- Diesel Oil – Diesel oil is a fuel used in diesel engines. It is a liquid more viscous than gasoline, having blue fluorescence. Its hallmark is the viscosity, whereas, by this property it is guaranteed lubrication. The presence of sulfur compounds can be seen in diesel fuel, combustion of which gives rise to rust and corrosive acids and is harmful to living beings, which generates the Acid rain. The awakening of the consciousness of environmental preservation is inducing refiners to install hydrodesulphurization processes to reduce the sulfur content.
- Paraffin – a commercial product versatile very wide industrial application, for example, waterproof paper, chewing gum, explosives, pencil barrel liners, coatings, tires and hoses, among others.