Metal Casting Guide: Casting Process, Design and Its Specification

Metal Casting Guide: Casting Process, Design and Its Specification

Metal casting refers to a process in which liquid metal is poured into desired molds and allowed to solidify.  They are cast to create complex metal shapes not possible otherwise using conventional methods. The common metals to be casted are aluminum, magnesium, zinc, steel and copper-and are used in heavy industries. Metal castings are commonly used in automobiles, architecture, home appliances, oil industries, gas extraction industries, mining, forestry, farming and water processing. They are durable and strong, and highly depend on communication between the casting manufacturers in India and supplier to produce quality and economical products.


Requesting a quote is a process where the manufacturer establishes the cost, quality and delivery date. One may be tempted to go for the cheaper prices, but it is wiser to choose a more expensive option to prevent delivery delays or a low-quality casting. The informed customer notes the tools, allowances and other specifications along with delivery terms and date. He also checks the experience and dependability of the supplier foundry to know the actual cost per casting.

Creating the casting design

Casting design is done using the simplest production methods for a cost-effective product, required net shape demands and cosmetic appearances. The request of quote states the detailed drawings of the dimensions, dimensional tolerances and the number of castings. The order quantity affects the price of the casting design as well. Castings usually come as unmachined and un-cast surfaces, so any changes must be stated.
The design engineer and the supplier foundry should work together for optimization of casting design. A foundry professional then checks the casting design before the actual production to look for defects and suggest modifications accordingly.

Keeping in mind the customer’s specific needs

A customer may have different metal casting requirements not matching with the industry’s specifications. The metal alloy is casted keeping in mind the international standards. Steel is used as a casting material, but stainless steel, iron, aluminum and copper may also be used. Moreover, mechanical properties of casting could be determined by using test bars cast, which could be done either separately or by attaching them to the metal casting.

Testing the metal casting thickness

There is a minimum thickness for every metal casting, for which the molten metal must be allowed to spread into all sections of the mold. Conventional casting designs walls should be thicker than than 0.25 inches, while investment casting walls should be thicker than 0.030 inches.

Making the “draft” and “core”

The term “draft” refers to the tapering portion of the vertical faces of a pattern, which helps to take the pattern out of the mold. The amount of draft required depends on the manufacturing process, casting size or whether the molding will be done by a machine or by hand.

A “core” refers to a hollow space within a metal casting, and is needed to create space when not possible using conventional methods. The diameter of the core depends on the thickness of the casting, the length of the core and casting method used by the supplier foundry.

Product quality checking

A product quality checking is done after every production, which may affect the total cost as well. The product is tested on its soundness, so that the casting is free from impurities with no slag inclusions, macro porosity and shrinkage. There is no defect-free metal casting, therefore the acceptance of the particular casting depends upon on the discussion based on the customer’s needs and other international standards.

Cost evaluation and delivery

The supplier foundry needs to cooperate with the manufacturer from the stage of design to delivery, to determine goals and evaluate costs. Foundry experts check the casting for defects and will help you in choosing the best solutions for economical metal casting.The whole process should begin approximately 24 weeks before the due delivery date, for proper production and delivery.

As mentioned, there should be cooperation between the casting manufacturers India and the supplier foundry need to work hand-in-hand for optimum casting and performance. All the steps should be followed diligently for the best casting production.

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